Volume 17 Number 1 (Jan. 2022)
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JSW 2022 Vol.17(1): 1-20 ISSN: 1796-217X
doi: 10.17706/jsw.17.1.1-20

Using Metrics for Risk Prediction in Object-Oriented Software: A Cross-Version Validation

Salim Moudache*, Mourad Badri
Software Engineering Research Laboratory, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Quebec, Trois-Rivie res, Canada

Abstract—This work aims to investigate the potential, from different perspectives, of a risk model to support Cross-Version Fault and Severity Prediction (CVFSP) in object-oriented software. The risk of a class is addressed from the perspective of two particular factors: the number of faults it can contain and their severity. We used various object-oriented metrics to capture the two risk factors. The risk of a class is modeled using the concept of Euclidean distance. We used a dataset collected from five successive versions of an open-source Java software system (ANT). We investigated different variants of the considered risk model, based on various combinations of object-oriented metrics pairs. We used different machine learning algorithms for building the prediction models: Naive Bayes (NB), J48, Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Multilayer Perceptron (ANN). We investigated the effectiveness of the prediction models for Cross-Version Fault and Severity Prediction (CVFSP), using data of prior versions of the considered system. We also investigated if the considered risk model can give as output the Empirical Risk (ER) of a class, a continuous value considering both the number of faults and their different levels of severity. We used different techniques for building the prediction models: Linear Regression (LR), Gaussian Process (GP), Random forest (RF) and M5P (two decision trees algorithms), SmoReg and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The considered risk model achieves acceptable results for both cross-version binary fault prediction (a g-mean of 0.714, an AUC of 0.725) and cross-version multi-classification of levels of severity (a g-mean of 0.758, an AUC of 0.771). The model also achieves good results in the estimation of the empirical risk of a class by considering both the number of faults and their levels of severity (intra-version analysis with a correlation coefficient of 0.659, cross-version analysis with a correlation coefficient of 0.486).

Index Terms—Cross-version validation, fault proneness, fault severity, machine learning algorithms, object-oriented metrics, prediction, risk.

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Cite: Salim Moudache, Mourad Badri, "Using Metrics for Risk Prediction in Object-Oriented Software: A Cross-Version Validation," Journal of Software vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-20, 2022.

Copyright © 2022 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0)

General Information

ISSN: 1796-217X (Online)
Frequency:  Bimonthly (Since 2020)
Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Antanas Verikas
Executive Editor: Ms. Yoyo Y. Zhou
Abstracting/ Indexing: DBLP, EBSCO, CNKI, Google Scholar, ProQuest, INSPEC(IET), ULRICH's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat, etc
E-mail: jsw@iap.org
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